594) in his History of the Franks as falling during his raid on Frisia (though Gregory identifies Hygelac as a Dane, not a Geat), which probably dates somewhere between 515 and 530 CE. Very soon after that the Geatic kingdom is conquered and annexed by the Swedes.Obviously, the latest possible date for the composition of the poem would be contemporary with the manuscript itself, ca. Two quotes are illustrative of the arguments for dates at the extreme ends of this span; the first from Clark Hall's introduction to his translation of Stjerna's Essays on Questions connected with the Old English poem of Beowulf : '…suppose we take A. 504 as the date of the birth of the Geatic prince Heardred, 515 as that of the death of his father, King Hygelac, in the historic raid against the Frisians, and 520 as that of the death of (King) Heardred and the accession of Beowulf to the throne. On its downfall a Geatic scóp [oral poet] journeys to Denmark to escape from the unsympathetic and unremunerative society of the conquerors. xxi-i) We may note that Clark Hall's theory supposes not only Hygelac, but other characters from Beowulf to be historical as well--which has not been proven to be true.The following revealing poem resulted from this event: One wonders how the bitter realities of trench warfare might have changed the author of this poem.One also wonders how the realities of modern warfare, in which the only thing between the combatants is spacefor example, bombs dropped from 40,000 feet and missiles launched from hundreds of mileshave changed the rules of the game forever.Beowulf is the first English literary masterpiece and one of the earliest European epics written in the vernacular, or native language, instead of literary Latin. For beginning students, with exercises to reinforce learning. Old English Phrases for the Traveler to Anglo-Saxon England. The story, accessibly retold by Beowulf for Beginners, survives in one fragile manuscript copied by two scribes near the end of the 10th or the first quarter of the 11th century. The third edition of this title, in paperback and for Kindle, is notable as an accessible and innovative text for beginning students.
The manuscript was made accessible to all by The Electronic Beowulf Project. In Beowulf’s northern European culture, violence was not stigmatized as a breakdown in social order but seen as a reasonable way to get things done. North suggests that Beowulf was written in 826-7 by Eanmund, Abbot of Breedon on the Hill in NW Leicestershire, as a requiem to Beornwulf of Mercia by Wiglaf, who ruled after him. Take for instance the following poem by Bob Mc Dowell, a member of the Royal Irish Fusiliers, titled The Hill Street Tommies, which speaks of the men from the Lurgan linen mill, some of whom perhaps sought adventure if not flight from Ireland during World War I: Further, there is evidence that at least some World War I English soldiers dealt with battle as a sort of game.For example, in The Great War and Modern Memory, Paul Fussell notes that on the Germans first use of chlorine gas, Sgt. ________, “Ring-Giver, Hoard-Guardian: Two World Views in Beowulf.” Papers. Espéculo: Revista de Estudios Literarios 40 (2008) n.p. Barkley, H., “Tolkien, Beowulf and the Lords of the Ring.” Germanic Notes and Reviews 30 (1999): 1-4. Aguilar Montero, Miquel, "Fundamentos teóricos de la épica universal en la literatura germánica altomedieval: El poema de Beowulf. ________, “Five Beowulf Notes.” Words, Texts and Manuscripts. ________, “The Conclusion of Wealhtheow’s Speech (Beowulf 1231).” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 91 (1990): 207-08. Bately, Janet, "Bravery and the Vocabulary of Bravery in Beowulf and The Battle of Maldon." Unlocking the Wordhord.. Top Abraham, Lenore, “The Decorum of Beowulf.” Philological Quarterly 72 (1993): 267-87.